For if he be the true son of God, he will defend him, and will deliver him from the hands of his enemies. Let us examine him by outrages and tortures Let us condemn him to a most shameful death These things they thought, and were deceived, for their own malice blinded them" Wisdom Namely, the following Old Testament passages:. He guards all his bones: not even one of them shall be broken" Psalm But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water In the Gospel of Mark , Jesus is described as prophesying his own Passion and his Resurrection three times:.
Christians argue that these are cases of genuine and fulfilled prophecy and many scholars see Semitic features and tradition in Mark After the third prophecy , the Gospel of Mark states that the brothers James and John ask Jesus to be his left and right hand men, but Jesus asks if they can drink from the cup he must drink from.
They say that they can do this. Jesus confirms this, but says that the places at his right and left hand are reserved for others. Many Christian see this as being a reference to the two criminals at Jesus' crucifixion, thus relating to the Passion. The cup is sometimes interpreted as the symbol of his death, in the light of Jesus' prayer at Gethsemane "Let this cup be taken from me! Most Christian denominations will read one or more narratives of the Passion during Holy Week , especially on Good Friday. In the Roman Catholic church, a large cross depicting the crucified Christ is brought out into the church and each of the faithful come forward to venerate the cross.
Rather than having the Gospel read solely by the priest, whole Roman Catholic congregations participate in the reading of the Passion Gospel during the Palm Sunday Mass and the Good Friday service. These readings have the Priest read the part of Christ, a narrator read the narrative, other reader s reading the other speaking parts, and either the choir or the congregation reading the parts of crowds i.
Crucify Him! In the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches, the Matins service for Good Friday is called Matins of the Twelve Passion Gospels , and is remarkable for the interspersing of twelve readings from the Gospel Book detailing chronologically the events of the Passion—from the Last Supper to the burial in the tomb —during the course of the service.
The first of these twelve readings is the longest Gospel reading of the entire liturgical year. In addition, every Wednesday and Friday throughout the year is dedicated in part to the commemoration of the Passion. Daily meetings are held, some times two or three times a day, to follow the events of the day. During the course of the reading, the Congregation sings hymn verses to respond to the events of the text. Most liturgical churches hold some form of commemoration of the Crucifixion on the afternoon of Good Friday.
Sometimes, this will take the form of a vigil from noon to pm, the approximate time that Jesus hung on the cross. Sometimes there will be a reenactment of the Descent from the Cross ; for instance, at Vespers in the Byzantine Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic tradition. The Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus endured during his Passion.
These Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins against Jesus. Some such prayers are provided in the Raccolta Catholic prayer book approved by a Decree of , and published by the Holy See in which also includes prayers as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary.
In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as " some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury " with respect to the sufferings of Jesus. Pope John Paul II referred to Acts of Reparation as the " unceasing effort to stand beside the endless crosses on which the Son of God continues to be crucified ". Several non-liturgical devotions have been developed by Christian faithful to commemorate the Passion.
The Stations of the Cross are a series of religious reflections describing, or artistic representations depicting, Christ Carrying the Cross to his crucifixion. Most Roman Catholic churches, as well as many Anglican , Lutheran. It is most commonly done during Lent , especially on Good Friday , but it can be done on other days as well, especially Wednesdays and Fridays. The Passion Offices were the special prayers said by various Roman Catholic communities, particularly the Passionist fathers to commemorate the Passion of Christ.
He ordered this office around the medieval association of five specific moments in Jesus' Passion with specific hours of the day. Having then attributed these to hours of the Divine Office , he arrived at this schema: . For a full list of the subjects forming narrative works of art on the Passion, or episodes from it, see Life of Christ in art.
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Each episode, such as the Flagellation of Christ or Entombment of Christ , has been represented thousands of times and has developed its own iconographic tradition; the Crucifixion is much the most common and important of these subjects. Each of the major Instruments has been supposedly recovered as relics which have been an object of veneration among many Christians, and have been depicted in art. Veronica's Veil is also often counted among the Instruments of the Passion; like the Shroud of Turin and Sudarium of Oviedo it is a cloth relic supposed to have touched Jesus.
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These 14 stations depict the Passion from the sentencing by Pilate to the sealing of the tomb, and since the 16th-century representations of them in various media have decorated the naves of most Catholic churches. The Way of the Cross is a devotion practiced by many people on Fridays throughout the year, most importantly on Good Friday.
This may be simply by going round the Stations in a church, or may involve large-scale re-enactments, as in Jerusalem. The Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy are similar schemes on a far larger scale than church Stations, with chapels containing large sculpted groups arranged in a hilly landscape; for pilgrims to tour the chapels typically takes several hours. They mostly date from the late 16th to the 17th century; most depict the Passion, others different subjects as well.
The main traditional types of church music sung during Holy Week are "Passions", musical settings of the Gospel narratives, both a Catholic and Lutheran tradition, and settings of the readings and responses from the Catholic Tenebrae services, especially those of the Lamentations of Jeremiah the Prophet. The many settings of the Stabat Mater or musical settings of sayings of Jesus on the cross are also commonly performed. The reading of the Passion section of one of the Gospels during Holy Week dates back to the 4th century.
It began to be intoned rather than just spoken in the Middle Ages, at least as early as the 8th century.
Passion of Jesus
By the 13th century, different singers were used for different characters in the narrative, a practice which became fairly universal by the 15th century, when polyphonic settings of the turba passages began to appear also. Turba , while literally meaning "crowd", is used in this case to mean any passage in which more than one speaker speak simultaneously. Martin Luther wrote, "The Passion of Christ should not be acted out in words and pretense, but in real life. Luther's friend and collaborator Johann Walther wrote responsorial Passions which were used as models by Lutheran composers for centuries, and "summa Passionis" versions continued to circulate, despite Luther's express disapproval.
Later 16th-century passions included choral "exordium" introduction and "conclusio" sections with additional texts. In the 17th century came the development of " oratorio " passions which led to J. Bach 's Passions , accompanied by instruments, with interpolated texts then called "madrigal" movements such as sinfonias , other Scripture passages, Latin motets , chorale arias, and more.
The practice of using recitative for the Evangelist rather than plainsong was a development of court composers in northern Germany and only crept into church compositions at the end of the 17th century. A famous musical reflection on the Passion is Part II of Messiah , an oratorio by George Frideric Handel , though the text here draws from Old Testament prophecies rather than from the Gospels themselves. His St Mark Passion was reconstructed in various ways. The Passion continued to be very popular in Protestant Germany in the 18th century, with Bach's second son Carl Philipp Emanuel composing over twenty settings.
In the 19th century, with the exception of John Stainer 's The Crucifixion , Passion settings were less popular, but in the 20th century, they have again come into fashion.
Passion of Jesus - Wikipedia
Two notable settings are the St. Recent examples include The Passion According to St. Choral meditations on aspects of the suffering through which Christ humbled himself on the cross include arrangements such as Buxtehude 's composition Membra Jesu Nostri , the first such Lutheran treatment, incorporating lyrics excerpted from a medieval Latin poem and featuring Old Testament verses that prefigure the Messiah as suffering servant, see Passion cantata. One famous cycle is performed at intervals at Oberammergau Germany, another in Sordevolo one of the most important in Italy, and another in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco uses what is considered the largest open-air theater in the world.
The Passion figures among the scenes in the English mystery plays in more than one cycle of dramatic vignettes.
Presentation on theme: "Ch.5: The Passion and Death of Jesus Christ"— Presentation transcript:
In the Chester Mystery Plays ' portrayal of Christ's Passion, specifically his humiliation before his sentence to crucifixion, the accounts of the Gospels concerning the physical violence visited on Jesus during his trial before the Sanhedrin, and the humiliating crowning of thorns visited upon him in Pilate's palace or by Herod's soldiers, according to Luke , is further confused by showing both actions as being carried out by jeering Jews. Processions on Palm Sunday commonly re-enact to some degree the entry of Jesus to Jerusalem; traditional ones often using special wooden donkeys on wheels.
Holy Week in Spain retains more traditional public processions than other countries, with the most famous, in Seville featuring floats with carved tableaux showing scenes from the story. During the Passion week many towns in Mexico have a representation of the passion. During the Passion week many cities and towns in Spain have a representation of the passion. There have also been a number of films telling the passion story , with a prominent example being Mel Gibson 's The Passion of the Christ.
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For the film, see The Passion of the Christ. For the televised drama, see The Passion franchise. Early life. In rest of the NT. Road to Damascus John's vision. Main article: Stations of the Cross. Main article: Little Office of the Passion.